Prepare for OCAJP, (1)

Java Building Blocks.

Java Class Structure

  1. Two primary members: methods (functions), and fields (variables).
    • Variables hold the state of the program
    • Methods operate on that state
  2. Classes vs. Files
    • To compile Java code, the file must have the extension .java.
    • The name of the file must match the name of the class.
    • To compile and execute
      $ javac Zoo.java 
      $ java Zoo
      
  3. Comments
    • single-line comment
    • multiple line comment
    • javadoc comment
// comment until end of line

/* Multiple
* line comment 
*/
* 
/** 
* Javadoc multiple-line comment 
* @author Moss GU
*/

Package vs. Imports

  1. java.lang is special. It is automatically imported

  2. .* whildcards doesn’t import child packages, fields, or methods; it imports only classes

  3. If you really need to use two classes with same name

import java.util.Date;
public class Conflicts {
  Date date; 
  java.sql.Date sqlDate;
}

//OR

public class Conflicts {
  java.util.Date date; 
  java.sql.Date sqlDate;
}

Code Formatting on the Exam: It will often omit the imports to save space. You’ll see examples with line numbers that don’t begin with 1 in this case.

Creating Objects

  1. Order of Initialization
    • Fields and instance initializer blocks are run in the order in which they appear in the file
    • The constructor runs after all fields and instance initializer blocks have run
  2. References and Primitives
    • Java has eight built-in data types, referred to as the Java primitive types
    • A byte can hold a value from –128 to 127.
    • A feature added in Java 7. You can have underscores in numbers to make them easier to read.

NOTE: The exam assumes you are well versed in the eight primitive data types, their relative sizes, and what can be stored in them

//TODO: TABLE here

double notAtStart = _1000.00; // DOES NOT COMPILE, cannot be at beginning
double notAtEnd = 1000.00_; // DOES NOT COMPILE, cannot be at end
double notByDecimal = 1000_.00; // DOES NOT COMPILE, cannot be in front of `.`
double annoyingButLegal = 1_00_0.0_0; //GOOD

Primitives vs. Reference

  • Reference types can be assigned null; Primitive types will give you a compiler error if you attempt to assign them null
  • Reference types can be used to call methods when they do not point to null. Primitives do not have methods declared on them
String reference = "hello"; 
int len = reference.length(); 
int bad = len.length(); // DOES NOT COMPILE

Declaring and Initializing Variables

You can declare many variables in the same declaration as long as they are all of the same type

String s3 = "yes", s4 = "no";
int num, String value; // DOES NOT COMPILE, difference type
double d1, double d2; //DOES NOT COMPILE, duplicated

Identifiers

Three rules

  • The name must begin with a letter or the symbol $ or _
  • Subsequent characters may also be numbers
  • You cannot use the same name as a Java reserved word
okidentifier //GOOD
$OK2Identifier //GOOD 
_alsoOK1d3ntifi3r //GOOD
__SStillOkbutKnotsonice$ //GOOD

3DPointClass // identifiers cannot begin with a number 
hollywood@vine // @ is not a letter, digit, $ or _ 
*$coffee // * is not a letter, digit, $ or _

Initialization of Variables

  • A local variable is a variable defined within a method
  • Local variables must be initialized before use

Garbage Collection

  • finalize(), it might not get called and that it defi nitely won’t be called twice.

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